Phytohormone signaling in arbuscular mycorhiza development
To establish arbuscular mycorhiza (AM) symbiosis glomeromycotan fungi colonize the interior of roots. This process is associated with developmental changes of root cells as well as fungal hyphae. The formation of fungal colonization-structures and the extent of root colonization are largely under plant control, depending on environmental conditions and the resulting physiological state of the host. Phytohormone signaling pathways are currently emerging as important regulators of AM development. Root exuded strigolactones activate AM fungi before colonization and a host strigolactone receptor component is required for AM development. Auxin quantitatively influences AM colonization and might perform an additional cell-autonomous function in the promotion of arbuscule development. Gibberellin signaling inhibits AM and conversely DELLA proteins are required for AM formation. Given the importance of phytohormone signaling in plant developmental responses to the environment it can be predicted that elucidating how phytohormones regulate AM development will provide a lead into understanding how plants orchestrate AM symbiosis with their physiological needs under changing environmental conditions.